The Crisis in the German Social Democracy was begun in prison by Rosa Luxemburg in February 1915 (she had been arrested on the 19th) and completed in April. The manuscript had to be smuggled out. When she was released, in January 1916, she found the manuscript, untouched, on her table. It was published only a year after its completion: in April 1916. in Switzerland, and was secretly distributed in Germany. In her absence, but largely due to her efforts, the few German revolutionaries who were able to meet, gathered at Karl Liebknecht’s flat in Berlin, and, on New Year’s Day 1916 they launched the ”International Group”, which was later to be known as ”Spartacusbund” and to emerge as the Communist Party of Germany on 1st January 1919. At this meeting the pamphlet was adopted as the statement of policy of the ”International Group” and the Theses on the War and the International as their programmatic document. Rosa Luxemburg had wanted to put her name to it, but was dissuaded from doing so as it would certainly have earner her another long term in prison. She therefore published the booklet under the pseudonym ”Junius”.